AFFIRMATIVE ACTION A NECESSARY POLICY TO PREVENT DISCRIMINATION AND INEQUITIES OR A DISCRIMINATIVE AND INEQUITABLE POLCY INTRODUCTION Historically, there have been arguments about what Affirmative Action (AA) really is. The basis of the argument for the most part, debates the goal(s) of AA. Is the goal of AA to erase past inequities for the disabled, minorities and/or women without protest? Or is Affirmative Action a culture or spirit that rewards diversity and differences? Basically there are two definitions or schools of thought for AA. The first school of thought is that AA is an umbrella term for laws and policies that the United States Executive, Judicial, and legislative bodies have mandated. Specifically, AA is a series of social policies and statutes that regulate activities and laws with the primary intent to achieve equity and increase opportunity for all. The second school of though is that AA is an umbrella term defining a broader set of activities whereby public and private institutions voluntarily incorporate practices and polices to increase diversity, opportunity and equity. Under this school of thought, AA is in spirit and an institutional policy. The intent of this paper is to address the serious and profound arguments of both schools of thought. In addition, this paper will address issues relative to determining whether or not AA is necessary instrument for the demise of discrimination and the formation of justice and whether or not AA needs to be maintained, modified or terminated. I. Affirmative Action Background A. A Brief History of AA in the United States of American Contrary to popular belief, the concept of AA actually began prior to the executive order signed by President John F. Kennedy in 1961. The concept of AA began upon the signing of Amendment XIII of the Constitution. 1. The Late 19the and Early 20th Century America began to deal with the inequities and lack of justice for mean of African decent in the 1800s.