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medieval settlement of ireland


            It is evident that as the Norman conquestors of Ireland who initally arrived under Richard de Clare at Dermot McMurrough's invitation set root .
             in Ireland, two deeply contrasting nations emerged. This development may be traced through two main incidences. Firstly, the arrival and .
             expansion of the Normans signalled a drastic departure from the hitherto stagnant and unchanged Gaelic way of life in Ireland, as the .
             distinctions between the Irish and 'invading' English divided the country. Secondly, as the settled Norman Lords gradually became accustomed .
             to their new territories and their peoples over the generations, another further stark division became clear. As the Normans began to liase more .
             with the native Irish, the adoption of their language and customs ensued, leading to their recognition as 'Anglo-Irish', a race or 'nation' distinct .
             again from their ancestral home, Britain. It was these contrasting groups of different backgrounds and interests who would amalgamate to forge .
             the Ireland we know today.
             Henry II had initiated the colonisation of Ireland upon his arrival here in 1171 to curb the growing influence of independent Norman Lords such .
             as Strongbow, supposedly his feudal subjects. In doing so, he initiated the divisions which would see the first development of distinct nations .
             in the country. Henry's colonisation of Ireland held little reference to territorial extents, but had the aim of solving a potential security problem .
             by dividing the country into two formative spheres of influence. Thus, under the 1175 Treaty of Windsor, Henry retained control of Dublin, .
             Leinster, Meath and a portion of Muster, with the remaining Irish theoreticlly submitting themselves to Rory O'Connor. The seeds for division .
             had already been sown. .
             After appointing Prince John Lackland Lord of Ireland in 1177, Henry set about the process which would again distinguish the colonising .
             nation from the conquestees; the feudalisation of Ireland.


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